Ascochyta leaf blight results in the rapid development of large irregularly shaped, straw-colored patches on Kentucky bluegrass and occasionally on tall fescue and perennial ryegrass during the summer. Because Ascochyta spp. are primarily foliar pathogens, diseased turfgrass usually recovers relatively quickly. Environmental conditions that trigger Ascochyta leaf blight are poorly understood.
Symptoms and signs
Ascochyta leaf blight symptoms can develop throughout the growing season but are more common during hot, droughty periods that were preceded by cool, rainy conditions. Large irregular patches of turf rapidly turn a straw-color and appear dead (Figure 1). The overall appearance of the disease resembles drought stress, except that the symptoms of Ascochyta leaf blight appear quickly (sometimes overnight). Although the blighting within an area appears complete from a distance, healthy leaves are interspersed within the patch (Figure 2). Blighting is usually restricted to the leaves. Bluegrass crowns and roots typically are not killed.
Leaves infected with Ascochyta spp. often exhibit a bleached tip dieback that extends about a third to halfway down the leaf blade (Figure 3). The margin between healthy and diseased tissue is abrupt and slightly pinched, with a dark brown to purple banding that is generally wider than that associated with dollar spot. Sometimes spots with distinct borders occur elsewhere on leaf blades. In other cases leaves may exhibit white banding or be entirely collapsed and shriveled. These foliar symptoms resemble heat or drought stress.
Ascochyta spp. produce minute yellow to dark brown, flask-shaped fruiting bodies (pycnidia) in diseased leaf tissue (Figure 4). These fruiting bodies, which are easy to view with a hand lens, are peppered throughout the dead leaves and can be useful as a diagnostic sign distinguishing Ascochyta leaf blight from dollar spot, abiotic causes and white grub damage. With white grub damage, the turf can be easily peeled back to observe the grubs.
Ascochyta leaf blight damage can be managed by following good cultural practices that minimize stress to the turfgrass. Reduce thatch and promote water infiltration through the soil by yearly core cultivation. Maintain height of cut between 2-1/2 and 3 inches. Minimize wounding of the leaf blades by maintaining sharp mower blades. Avoid mowing during wet weather, especially when Ascochyta spp. are active. Reduce mowing frequency and increase mowing height during Ascochyta leaf blight outbreaks. The fungus can be spread from one location to another on grass clippings, although this is unlikely to contribute significantly to disease development. Similarly, collecting clippings while mowing to reduce the amount of inoculum is unlikely to reduce disease severity. Disease development depends more on environmental conditions than on the initial amount of fungus present in the turfgrass.
Maintain balanced fertility. Avoid excessive applications of nitrogen fertilizer, especially in the spring. Too much nitrogen promotes rapid, succulent leaf growth that requires more frequent mowing and causes more wounding of the turfgrass.
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Try to maintain uniform soil moisture. Check the irrigation system to make sure that all irrigation heads are working properly and that water is being distributed uniformly to avoid drought stress. On the other hand, excessive irrigation and poorly drained soils can also promote disease development.
Ascochyta leaf blight is primarily a leaf disease and not a root or crown disease, so it rarely causes plant mortality. Turfgrass usually recovers completely after a couple of weeks. Although several fungicides will inhibit Ascochyta spp., they can be expensive and difficult to apply. Furthermore Ascochyta leaf blight development is sporadic and rapid, making timing of preventive and curative fungicide applications difficult.
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A rejuvenating 5-day body detox plan to keep you going
In the present condition, you can no longer survive a single day without encountering pollution. At work, you may not at all be so sure of the cleanliness of the water you drink or of the food you eat. When dealing with people, you can hardly get away from air pollution, be it from smokers, all sorts of sprays or from the exhaust of vehicles. This greatly affects the health in one way or another. Don’t be so sure that when your body does not visibly react, it’s alright.
For these reasons, detoxification is necessary in order to keep a healthy body which also results to healthy mind and healthy relationship with people.
Our body has its own means of healing and detoxifying. However, when pollutants that enter our body had been accumulated more than the capacity of self cleansing, we are giving our inside mechanisms a hard time. Then the tissues are stressed and therefore lead to malfunction. And because they are weakened, the cleansing process is also affected.
We definitely want a clean body. But we also need to help our system in regulating the body processes. However, you should not wait for your body organs to be stressed out and overworked before doing something. In times when the body lacks the command to keep the systems working, the person must supplement. The 5-day detox plan will do a great help in keeping the body systems at work. The 5-day detox plan will rejuvenate the body as well as the spirit, keeping it clean and toned.
Detoxification diet is a part of the 5-day detox plan. During the period of detoxification, certain foods are avoided. Your meals consist mostly of fresh fruits and green, leafy vegetables. Fats, oil, preservatives and food additives are a big no when undergoing the process of detoxification. Also, meat should be kept off because they are hard to digest. For a day or two, eating meat in any form is dropped off from the diet.
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Ideal foods that can be part of your diet are as follow: garlic, broccoli, beets, and beans or nuts. Only fresh fruit extracts can be taken as beverages except for grapefruit. And since water is a universal solvent, six to eight glasses of this should be recommended daily. Water is also a major factor in the detoxification process. It flushes out the toxins in the forms of perspiration, urine, or stool.
Although you seem to eat less when detoxifying, you are assured that you will not starve, and ironically, you will even boost your stamina. It is because your intake is limited only to foods which are healthy and are good to the digestive system.
Detoxification plan should be done at least quarterly. To ensure that you get an efficient one, it will be best to consult a nutritionist or a professional. You should also seek for a doctor’s advice to ensure that what you will do is a detoxification and not addition of toxins to your body.
Through the process of detoxification, the toxins are flushed out in your body and a new set of energy is supplied to the body providing you both physical and mental alertness.
Cleanliness should be maintained not only in the outside, but more so in the inside.